snowflake_put

This feature requires an Enterprise license. To upgrade, contact Redpanda sales.

Sends messages to Snowflake stages and, optionally, calls Snowpipe to load this data into one or more tables.

Introduced in version 4.0.0.

  • Common

  • Advanced

# Common config fields, showing default values
output:
  label: ""
  snowflake_put:
    account: "" # No default (required)
    region: us-west-2 # No default (optional)
    cloud: aws # No default (optional)
    user: "" # No default (required)
    password: "" # No default (optional)
    private_key_file: "" # No default (optional)
    private_key_pass: "" # No default (optional)
    role: "" # No default (required)
    database: "" # No default (required)
    warehouse: "" # No default (required)
    schema: "" # No default (required)
    stage: "" # No default (required)
    path: ""
    file_name: ""
    file_extension: ""
    compression: AUTO
    request_id: ""
    snowpipe: "" # No default (optional)
    batching:
      count: 0
      byte_size: 0
      period: ""
      check: ""
    max_in_flight: 1
# All config fields, showing default values
output:
  label: ""
  snowflake_put:
    account: "" # No default (required)
    region: us-west-2 # No default (optional)
    cloud: aws # No default (optional)
    user: "" # No default (required)
    password: "" # No default (optional)
    private_key_file: "" # No default (optional)
    private_key_pass: "" # No default (optional)
    role: "" # No default (required)
    database: "" # No default (required)
    warehouse: "" # No default (required)
    schema: "" # No default (required)
    stage: "" # No default (required)
    path: ""
    file_name: ""
    file_extension: ""
    upload_parallel_threads: 4
    compression: AUTO
    request_id: ""
    snowpipe: "" # No default (optional)
    client_session_keep_alive: false
    batching:
      count: 0
      byte_size: 0
      period: ""
      check: ""
      processors: [] # No default (optional)
    max_in_flight: 1

In order to use a different stage and / or Snowpipe for each message, you can use function interpolations as described here. When using batching, messages are grouped by the calculated stage and Snowpipe and are streamed to individual files in their corresponding stage and, optionally, a Snowpipe insertFiles REST API call will be made for each individual file.

Credentials

Two authentication mechanisms are supported: - User/password - Key Pair Authentication

User/password

This is a basic authentication mechanism which allows you to PUT data into a stage. However, it is not compatible with Snowpipe.

Key pair authentication

This authentication mechanism allows Snowpipe functionality, but it does require configuring an SSH Private Key beforehand. Please consult the documentation for details on how to set it up and assign the Public Key to your user.

Note that the Snowflake documentation used to suggest using this command:

openssl genrsa 2048 | openssl pkcs8 -topk8 -inform PEM -out rsa_key.p8

to generate an encrypted SSH private key. However, in this case, it uses an encryption algorithm called pbeWithMD5AndDES-CBC, which is part of the PKCS#5 v1.5 and is considered insecure. Due to this, Redpanda Connect does not support it and, if you wish to use password-protected keys directly, you must use PKCS#5 v2.0 to encrypt them by using the following command (as the current Snowflake docs suggest):

openssl genrsa 2048 | openssl pkcs8 -topk8 -v2 des3 -inform PEM -out rsa_key.p8

If you have an existing key encrypted with PKCS#5 v1.5, you can re-encrypt it with PKCS#5 v2.0 using this command:

openssl pkcs8 -in rsa_key_original.p8 -topk8 -v2 des3 -out rsa_key.p8

Please consult the pkcs8 command documentation for details on PKCS#5 algorithms.

Batching

It’s common to want to upload messages to Snowflake as batched archives. The easiest way to do this is to batch your messages at the output level and join the batch of messages with an archive and/or compress processor.

For the optimal batch size, please consult the Snowflake documentation.

Snowpipe

Given a table called BENTHOS_TBL with one column of type variant:

CREATE OR REPLACE TABLE BENTHOS_DB.PUBLIC.BENTHOS_TBL(RECORD variant)

and the following BENTHOS_PIPE Snowpipe:

CREATE OR REPLACE PIPE BENTHOS_DB.PUBLIC.BENTHOS_PIPE AUTO_INGEST = FALSE AS COPY INTO BENTHOS_DB.PUBLIC.BENTHOS_TBL FROM (SELECT * FROM @%BENTHOS_TBL) FILE_FORMAT = (TYPE = JSON COMPRESSION = AUTO)

you can configure Redpanda Connect to use the implicit table stage @%BENTHOS_TBL as the stage and BENTHOS_PIPE as the snowpipe. In this case, you must set compression to AUTO and, if using message batching, you’ll need to configure an archive processor with the concatenate format. Since the compression is set to AUTO, the gosnowflake client library will compress the messages automatically so you don’t need to add a compress processor for message batches.

If you add STRIP_OUTER_ARRAY = TRUE in your Snowpipe FILE_FORMAT definition, then you must use json_array instead of concatenate as the archive processor format.

Only Snowpipes with FILE_FORMAT TYPE JSON are currently supported.

Snowpipe troubleshooting

Snowpipe provides the insertReport and loadHistoryScan REST API endpoints which can be used to get information about recent Snowpipe calls. In order to query them, you’ll first need to generate a valid JWT token for your Snowflake account. There are two methods for doing so: - Using the snowsql utility:

snowsql --private-key-path rsa_key.p8 --generate-jwt -a <account> -u <user>
  • Using the Python sql-api-generate-jwt utility:

python3 sql-api-generate-jwt.py --private_key_file_path=rsa_key.p8 --account=<account> --user=<user>

Once you successfully generate a JWT token and store it into the JWT_TOKEN environment variable, then you can, for example, query the insertReport endpoint using curl:

curl -H "Authorization: Bearer ${JWT_TOKEN}" "https://<account>.snowflakecomputing.com/v1/data/pipes/<database>.<schema>.<snowpipe>/insertReport"

If you need to pass in a valid requestId to any of these Snowpipe REST API endpoints, you can set a uuid_v4() string in a metadata field called request_id, log it via the log processor and then configure request_id: ${ @request_id } ). Alternatively, you can enable debug logging and Redpanda Connect will print the Request IDs that it sends to Snowpipe.

General troubleshooting

The underlying gosnowflake driver requires write access to the default directory to use for temporary files. Please consult the os.TempDir docs for details on how to change this directory via environment variables.

A silent failure can occur due to this issue, where the underlying gosnowflake driver doesn’t return an error and doesn’t log a failure if it can’t figure out the current username. One way to trigger this behavior is by running Redpanda Connect in a Docker container with a non-existent user ID (such as --user 1000:1000).

Performance

This output benefits from sending multiple messages in flight in parallel for improved performance. You can tune the max number of in flight messages (or message batches) with the field max_in_flight.

This output benefits from sending messages as a batch for improved performance. Batches can be formed at both the input and output level. You can find out more in this doc.

Examples

  • Kafka / realtime brokers

  • No compression

  • Parquet format with snappy compression

  • Automatic compression

  • DEFLATE compression

  • RAW_DEFLATE compression

Upload message batches from realtime brokers such as Kafka persisting the batch partition and offsets in the stage path and filename similarly to the Kafka Connector scheme and call Snowpipe to load them into a table. When batching is configured at the input level, it is done per-partition.

input:
  kafka:
    addresses:
      - localhost:9092
    topics:
      - foo
    consumer_group: benthos
    batching:
      count: 10
      period: 3s
      processors:
        - mapping: |
            meta kafka_start_offset = meta("kafka_offset").from(0)
            meta kafka_end_offset = meta("kafka_offset").from(-1)
            meta batch_timestamp = if batch_index() == 0 { now() }
        - mapping: |
            meta batch_timestamp = if batch_index() != 0 { meta("batch_timestamp").from(0) }

output:
  snowflake_put:
    account: benthos
    user: test@benthos.dev
    private_key_file: path_to_ssh_key.pem
    role: ACCOUNTADMIN
    database: BENTHOS_DB
    warehouse: COMPUTE_WH
    schema: PUBLIC
    stage: "@%BENTHOS_TBL"
    path: benthos/BENTHOS_TBL/${! @kafka_partition }
    file_name: ${! @kafka_start_offset }_${! @kafka_end_offset }_${! meta("batch_timestamp") }
    upload_parallel_threads: 4
    compression: NONE
    snowpipe: BENTHOS_PIPE

Upload concatenated messages into a .json file to a table stage without calling Snowpipe.

output:
  snowflake_put:
    account: benthos
    user: test@benthos.dev
    private_key_file: path_to_ssh_key.pem
    role: ACCOUNTADMIN
    database: BENTHOS_DB
    warehouse: COMPUTE_WH
    schema: PUBLIC
    stage: "@%BENTHOS_TBL"
    path: benthos
    upload_parallel_threads: 4
    compression: NONE
    batching:
      count: 10
      period: 3s
      processors:
        - archive:
            format: concatenate

Upload concatenated messages into a .parquet file to a table stage without calling Snowpipe.

output:
  snowflake_put:
    account: benthos
    user: test@benthos.dev
    private_key_file: path_to_ssh_key.pem
    role: ACCOUNTADMIN
    database: BENTHOS_DB
    warehouse: COMPUTE_WH
    schema: PUBLIC
    stage: "@%BENTHOS_TBL"
    path: benthos
    file_extension: parquet
    upload_parallel_threads: 4
    compression: NONE
    batching:
      count: 10
      period: 3s
      processors:
        - parquet_encode:
            schema:
              - name: ID
                type: INT64
              - name: CONTENT
                type: BYTE_ARRAY
            default_compression: snappy

Upload concatenated messages compressed automatically into a .gz archive file to a table stage without calling Snowpipe.

output:
  snowflake_put:
    account: benthos
    user: test@benthos.dev
    private_key_file: path_to_ssh_key.pem
    role: ACCOUNTADMIN
    database: BENTHOS_DB
    warehouse: COMPUTE_WH
    schema: PUBLIC
    stage: "@%BENTHOS_TBL"
    path: benthos
    upload_parallel_threads: 4
    compression: AUTO
    batching:
      count: 10
      period: 3s
      processors:
        - archive:
            format: concatenate

Upload concatenated messages compressed into a .deflate archive file to a table stage and call Snowpipe to load them into a table.

output:
  snowflake_put:
    account: benthos
    user: test@benthos.dev
    private_key_file: path_to_ssh_key.pem
    role: ACCOUNTADMIN
    database: BENTHOS_DB
    warehouse: COMPUTE_WH
    schema: PUBLIC
    stage: "@%BENTHOS_TBL"
    path: benthos
    upload_parallel_threads: 4
    compression: DEFLATE
    snowpipe: BENTHOS_PIPE
    batching:
      count: 10
      period: 3s
      processors:
        - archive:
            format: concatenate
        - mapping: |
            root = content().compress("zlib")

Upload concatenated messages compressed into a .raw_deflate archive file to a table stage and call Snowpipe to load them into a table.

output:
  snowflake_put:
    account: benthos
    user: test@benthos.dev
    private_key_file: path_to_ssh_key.pem
    role: ACCOUNTADMIN
    database: BENTHOS_DB
    warehouse: COMPUTE_WH
    schema: PUBLIC
    stage: "@%BENTHOS_TBL"
    path: benthos
    upload_parallel_threads: 4
    compression: RAW_DEFLATE
    snowpipe: BENTHOS_PIPE
    batching:
      count: 10
      period: 3s
      processors:
        - archive:
            format: concatenate
        - mapping: |
            root = content().compress("flate")

Fields

account

Account name, which is the same as the Account Identifier. However, when using an Account Locator, the Account Identifier is formatted as <account_locator>.<region_id>.<cloud> and this field needs to be populated using the <account_locator> part.

Type: string

region

Optional region field which needs to be populated when using an Account Locator and it must be set to the <region_id> part of the Account Identifier (<account_locator>.<region_id>.<cloud>).

Type: string

# Examples

region: us-west-2

cloud

Optional cloud platform field which needs to be populated when using an Account Locator and it must be set to the <cloud> part of the Account Identifier (<account_locator>.<region_id>.<cloud>).

Type: string

# Examples

cloud: aws

cloud: gcp

cloud: azure

user

Username.

Type: string

password

An optional password.

This field contains sensitive information that usually shouldn’t be added to a config directly, read our secrets page for more info.

Type: string

private_key_file

The path to a file containing the private SSH key.

Type: string

private_key_pass

An optional private SSH key passphrase.

This field contains sensitive information that usually shouldn’t be added to a config directly, read our secrets page for more info.

Type: string

role

Role.

Type: string

database

Database.

Type: string

warehouse

Warehouse.

Type: string

schema

Schema.

Type: string

stage

Stage name. Use either one of the supported stage types. This field supports interpolation functions.

Type: string

path

Stage path. This field supports interpolation functions.

Type: string

Default: ""

file_name

Stage file name. Will be equal to the Request ID if not set or empty. This field supports interpolation functions.

Type: string

Default: "" Requires version v4.12.0 or newer

file_extension

Stage file extension. Will be derived from the configured compression if not set or empty. This field supports interpolation functions.

Type: string

Default: "" Requires version v4.12.0 or newer

# Examples

file_extension: csv

file_extension: parquet

upload_parallel_threads

Specifies the number of threads to use for uploading files.

Type: int

Default: 4

compression

Compression type.

Type: string

Default: "AUTO"

Option Summary

AUTO

Compression (gzip) is applied automatically by the output and messages must contain plain-text JSON. Default file_extension: gz.

DEFLATE

Messages must be pre-compressed using the zlib algorithm (with zlib header, RFC1950). Default file_extension: deflate.

GZIP

Messages must be pre-compressed using the gzip algorithm. Default file_extension: gz.

NONE

No compression is applied and messages must contain plain-text JSON. Default file_extension: json.

RAW_DEFLATE

Messages must be pre-compressed using the flate algorithm (without header, RFC1951). Default file_extension: raw_deflate.

ZSTD

Messages must be pre-compressed using the Zstandard algorithm. Default file_extension: zst.

request_id

Request ID. Will be assigned a random UUID (v4) string if not set or empty. This field supports interpolation functions.

Type: string

Default: "" Requires version v4.12.0 or newer

snowpipe

An optional Snowpipe name. Use the <snowpipe> part from <database>.<schema>.<snowpipe>. This field supports interpolation functions.

Type: string

client_session_keep_alive

Enable Snowflake keepalive mechanism to prevent the client session from expiring after 4 hours (error 390114).

Type: bool

Default: false

batching

Allows you to configure a batching policy.

Type: object

# Examples

batching:
  byte_size: 5000
  count: 0
  period: 1s

batching:
  count: 10
  period: 1s

batching:
  check: this.contains("END BATCH")
  count: 0
  period: 1m

batching.count

A number of messages at which the batch should be flushed. If 0 disables count based batching.

Type: int

Default: 0

batching.byte_size

An amount of bytes at which the batch should be flushed. If 0 disables size based batching.

Type: int

Default: 0

batching.period

A period in which an incomplete batch should be flushed regardless of its size.

Type: string

Default: ""

# Examples

period: 1s

period: 1m

period: 500ms

batching.check

A Bloblang query that should return a boolean value indicating whether a message should end a batch.

Type: string

Default: ""

# Examples

check: this.type == "end_of_transaction"

batching.processors

A list of processors to apply to a batch as it is flushed. This allows you to aggregate and archive the batch however you see fit. Please note that all resulting messages are flushed as a single batch, therefore splitting the batch into smaller batches using these processors is a no-op.

Type: array

# Examples

processors:
  - archive:
      format: concatenate

processors:
  - archive:
      format: lines

processors:
  - archive:
      format: json_array

max_in_flight

The maximum number of parallel message batches to have in flight at any given time.

Type: int

Default: 1